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Although it had long been recognised that using multitrack tape to record doubled lead vocals produced an enhanced sound, before ADT it had been necessary to record such vocal tracks twice, a task that was both tedious and exacting.
ADT was invented by Townsend during the Revolver sessions in 1966 especially for the Beatles, who disliked tracking sessions and regularly expressed a desire for a technical solution to the problem.
The engineer Ken Townsend devised a method for accomplishing this by using a 50 Hz control signal between the two machines. Pepper is Martin and Emerick's liberal use of signal processing to shape the sound of the recording, which included the application of dynamic range compression, reverberation and signal limiting.
Another is automatic double tracking (ADT), a system that uses tape recorders to create a simultaneous doubling of a sound.
In August 1966, the Beatles permanently retired from touring and began a three-month holiday from recording.
Listening to each stage of their recording, once they've done the first couple of tracks, it's often hard to see what they're still looking for, it sounds so complete.
Often the final complicated, well-layered version seems to have drowned the initial simple melody.
In November 1966, during a return flight to London from Kenya, where he had been on holiday with Beatles tour manager Mal Evans, Mc Cartney had an idea for a song that eventually formed the impetus of the Sgt. His idea involved an Edwardian-era military band, for which Evans invented a name in the style of contemporary San Francisco-based groups such as Big Brother and the Holding Company and Quicksilver Messenger Service.
"Sergeant Pepper" itself didn't appear until halfway through making the album.